When it comes to evaluating the amount of sodium needed for a healthy diet, there are plenty of qualities to consider. It is important to remember that the body needs sodium, specifically for controlling blood pressure and volume while also helping our muscles and nerves work together properly. However, the biggest concern with sodium is that because it is commonly found in a variety of regularly consumed food we tend to ingest too much of it, which can lead to a variety of potential health hazards.
According to the American Heart Association, 9 out of 10 Americans are consuming too much sodium on a daily basis. The average recommendation for sodium is estimated at 1,500 milligrams or less, while it is projected that the average American is eating more than 3,400 milligrams. This consistent excess of the element is one of the main attributes to the statistic that 77.9 million American Adults have high blood pressure, and cutting your sodium intake levels in half can also help lower cholesterol. The abundance of this element is a health risk that continues to negatively impact the overall quality of life for people all around the world.
There are a few subtle and obvious indicators that you are potentially ingesting too much sodium on a day-to-day basis. Besides high blood pressure, these symptoms also include:
- Frequently feeling thirsty
- Sensations of bloating or feeling uncomfortable within the stomach
- Decrease in bone strength and/or density
The biggest reason you are loading your body with sodium is due to ingesting too much salt in your diet. Here are a few commonly used foods that secretly are packed with high levels of sodium and could also be the main component to your dietary abundance of sodium:
Cold cut meat sandwiches
Sandwiches are generally the quickest and simplest recipe to create when it comes to packing a lunch, but they can also be filled with the most sodium. By adding approximately 2 ounces of cold cut meats, which roughly translates into six thin slices, you are already receiving half of your daily sodium needs. Now tack on the fact that a slice of bread generally has around 120 milligrams of sodium, a slice of cheese can possess well over 300 milligrams plus any other condiments required for a tasty sandwich and you will be pushing closer and closer to your full-on daily recommendation. Always look for low-sodium options when it comes to sandwich ingredients, and use all of them sparingly.
Nothing may warm up the soul like a hot bowl of chicken noodle soup, but many people are unaware that canned soups are packed with salt preservatives to help boost their taste. While these products are often advertised as providing great sources of vitamins and minerals, they also can contain upwards of 600 milligrams of sodium or higher per can. Like most food items, checking the labels to see whether they are promoting a sticker claiming to be low-sodium is the best way to know the contents of the element.
Cereals are another food item that you need to keep an eye out for their labels. While the levels of sodium between all different types of brands fluctuates, some popular choices can easily contain up to 250 or more milligrams of sodium per serving. To put that into further perspective, a serving of cereal is generally a ½ cup, which often needs to be multiplied to effectively determine the correct amount of sodium in your bowl. Always look at the nutrition facts and you will find that there are plenty of low-sodium options for breakfast cereal.
There are an estimated 15 million people living in the U.S. with a food allergy, according to Food Allergy Research and Education, which is a number that has continued to rise over the past several years. Children are at the root of the problem, as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention has reported that food allergies with children has risen more than 50 percent since 1997. While most people are aware of what foods can spawn allergic symptoms, some people are still left in the dark, which is why recognizing the most common forms of food allergies is essential in preventing potential severe reactions in the future.
While anyone can potentially become allergic to just about any food, there are only eight foods that account for 90 percent of all food-allergic reactions in the U.S. Here is the breakdown of those foods:
- Tree nuts
A peanut allergy is typically the most common form of food sensitivity, and symptoms can range from minor skin reactions or digestive problems to severe constriction of airways or loss of consciousness. Peanut allergies are also the greatest cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, which can be a serious medical emergency that can potentially require adrenaline injections.
Peanuts are different than tree nuts, in the general sense that peanuts do not grow on trees as do almonds, cashews and walnuts. However, it is important to note that an estimated 25 to 40 percent of people allergic to peanuts are also prone to hypersensitivity with tree nuts. If you are allergic to one or the other, it is advised to generally stay away from nuts as a whole.
Milk is the most reported allergy among infants and children, and an estimated 2.5 percent of children aged three years and younger are allergic to milk. The reason why children are prone to milk allergies is due to the high levels of antibodies that are prevalent in cow's milk, but most children are actually capable to grow out of the allergy the older they become. Blood testing is available from doctors to determine whether or not a child can ward off their milk allergy.
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish allergies tend to lead to the most severe types of reactions among all food allergies. These types of allergens are generally not discovered until you become an adult, in which 40 percent of fish allergies and 60 percent of shellfish allergies are found out as a grown-up. Allergies to fish and shellfish are not the same family of fish, so you can consume one while being allergic to the other.
Take control of food allergies
Food allergies are essentially the result of a specific ingredient in a food triggering a hazardous response in your immune system, prompting a wide variety of potential side effects. Practically all food allergies are discovered simply through trying new foods the older you get, and can be extremely unpredictable. Once you're aware of your food allergy, reading the ingredients on labels is the most important thing you can do when it comes to preventing reactions.
Food labels are required to list when something has a particular ingredient that could prompt allergies. For instance, with wheat allergies, a label will list ingredients with wheat in them in parenthesis, such as flour (wheat). It is also crucial to know your symptoms as well, and always have the appropriate medication handy in the rare instance something you eat unknowingly has the allergen.
Although its tendencies, symptoms and origins are generally undisclosed, iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world according to the World Health Organization. A deficiency in iron is also linked to a condition known as anaemia, which is when the body does not produce enough red blood cells to provide sufficient amounts of oxygen to body tissues. Developing iron deficiency is generally the result of a recent loss in blood or not receiving enough iron in your diet. These are serious health hazards, and being aware of potential side effects of iron deficiency are crucial in terms of increasing the likelihood of prevention. Here are a few indicators that could possibly be a signal that you are iron deficient:
Feeling tired is generally the biggest sign that you are not receiving enough iron for your body. This is due to not enough oxygen being provided to your muscles, because your red blood cells do not have sufficient levels of iron. If you are frequently finding yourself yawning and nodding off at various hours of the day despite getting an adequate amount of sleep the night before, iron deficiency could be the primary culprit.
Decreased attention span
Another common symptom of iron deficiency is experiencing a lack of focus. Whether at work, school or socializing with friends, low iron levels can trigger an alteration of your neurotransmitters, which are synapses between your brain cells that can impact everything from your reaction time, apathetic emotions, to your attention span. Getting more iron in your body can help assist your ability to concentrate.
If you have noticed that your skin is extremely lacking in tan, increasing your time spent laying out in the sun might not be the cure to your problem. When iron levels are low and fewer amounts of oxygen are being provided throughout your body, your skin pigmentation might be one of the first alterations you will notice. Put some color back into your complexion by upping the ante on your iron intake.
Shortness of breath
If you have only gone half way through your typical morning jog and you are already feeling gassed, a depletion in iron might be the primary suspect to point the blame. Another usual side effect of iron deficiency is how your endurance becomes affected, which can produce series of coughing or wheezing fits, especially while exercising.
Confused because you feel like you spent the last 24 hours practicing extreme weightlifting? A lack of oxygen being supplied to your muscles will definitely lead to your arms and legs feeling extremely overwhelmed. Take back control over your body and find out what you can do to receive the iron you need to keep on going strong.
Great sources of iron
If you are concerned that you might be at risk for iron deficiency, schedule a blood screening test with your doctor today. A few foods to help provide your body with the iron it needs include:
- Cashews, almonds and peanuts
- Whole grains, bran and fortified cereals
- Liver or beef tenderloin
Another terrific source of iron adding two scoops of Naturade Soy-Free Veg to your favorite beverage. Gulping down eight ounces of this soy free protein powder will give your body 40 percent of its daily recommendation for iron.
Bust out the elbow and knee pads, it is time for some skating! While rollerblading is often given up after years of trips, falls and bruises as a teenager, this fun and active pastime is not only an enjoyable way to maneuver around your city, but can provide your body with an amazing and extensive workout. Here are just a few of the ways rollerblading a few times a week can help boost your figure back into shape this summer:
Tone that muscle
Gliding through the streets, weaving your legs faster and faster while guiding your body with your arms seems like quite an exercise when you really think about it. All of these fluid movements while propelling yourself around on rollerblades is also great ways to help build a little muscle.
First off, the constant motion of thrusting and extending your hips is able to tone your quadriceps as well as your glutes. Your glutes are what helps stabilize your body's balance, and consistent rollerblading helps strengthen them and create some tone. Hamstrings are also receiving quite a bit of exercise throughout all of this, with each lift of your foot as you push yourself harder. Then there is your abdominal muscles, which work as the core of your body, orchestrating which leg goes forward as your hips rotate in dictation. Who knew that simply rollerblading could work out all of these muscles at one time?
Get your aerobics going
Rollerblading also works out the most important muscle you have - the heart. Just 30 minutes of actively rollerblading can get your heart rate up to 148 beats per minute, while also helping you burn more than 300 calories. This can equate to just about the same from cycling, while you are also working out all of those muscles, something that can not be replicated through biking.
Sailing around on a fresh new pair of rollerblades is not only a snazzier way to get somewhere instead of running, but it is also easier on your bones. Every time you take a step while sprinting, added pressure is placed upon your ankle and foot joints, which over time can generally lead to occasional pain and fractures. Rollerblading eliminates all of this because you are never adding pressure on your ankles and feet. Instead, you are maintaining an even amount of stress that is minimal and healthier for your body in the long run, no pun intended.
Add some excitement!
Where is the fun in running on a stationary treadmill? Put some thrills into your exercise routine and get back on those rollerblades! They are a great way to get around, fly past some scenery and even walk your dog. Better yet, they require no gasoline or fuel, just a little drive and determination which is always better for the environment. So, the next time you need to go out to run an errand, leave the keys at the house and pop on a pair of rollerblades, one of the more entertaining times you can have while staying active.
Getting ready to take off for a vacation or booking your next flight for work is always somewhat stressful. You have to remember to make hotel reservations, bring your passport if you are heading out of the country and last but not least, pack that toothbrush. With so many different obstacles to juggle, it is easy to forget about your own health sometimes, but it is your immune system that that should be on the forefront of your mind when it comes to frequent travel. Everything from changing time zones to drinking foreign tap water can have some sort of physical impact on your body, so for the next time you find yourself taking the red eye flight away from home, here are a few tips to help give your immune system a much needed boost:
As simple as this tip can be, maintaining plenty of fluid intake is as essential as it gets when it comes to a healthy immune system. When you are traveling in a plane, the air pressure and drop in humidity can provoke dehydration, which is the biggest advocate for an unprotected immune system. It is recommended that while traveling you should drink 8 ounces of water every hour, and try to limit your intake of caffeinated beverages, especially when traveling by plane.
Antioxidants are your friend
When your body enters a location it is not familiar with, it becomes more susceptible to floating bacteria and viruses with which your immune system has never been acquainted. That is why ingesting plenty of healthy antioxidants is your best source for preventative action against illness. Loading up on vitamins A, C and E is the simplest way to keep your body in tip top condition. Some great foods bursting with antioxidants include:
- pinto beans
You can also get plenty of antioxidants by consuming just a few capsules of Symbiotics Lactoferrin, which is proven to defend your immune system while sprucing you up with some much needed traveling energy.
Colostrum is key
If you are not aware of all the immune boosting properties adding some colostrum can provide for your body, it is time to get with the picture. Everything from easing digestion to increasing your immune response is supplied through colostrum supplements, and the amount of proteins, antibodies and antioxidants each serving contains is practically unparalleled to any other vitamin supplement out there. Try taking a few capsules of Symbiotics Colostrum Plus during your next trip, and get ready to conquer the world!
Look, it is always important to stay healthy and active. Running is a perfect form of exercise that not only improves cardiovascular activity, builds muscles and helps burn calories, but can also provide therapeutic ability for those looking to clear their minds. That being said, we can all point out someone who sort of takes the whole jogging thing a bit too far. Whether it is suspending your lunch break to get a quick 5k dash in or missing a friend's wedding because it was on the same date as the New York City Marathon, there is such thing as runner's obsession. While an addiction to sprinting is better than a dependency to cheeseburgers, there is a difference between exercise and a fetish. Here are 10 signs that you could be obsessed with running.
Your kids are always late to school
If you are often finding yourself having to explain your child's tardiness to your teachers as a consequence of good weather and a new pair of running shoes, then you just might have a problem. Remember, education is always first and foremost.
Justifying your dessert
When it gets to a point where every slice of cake or scoop of ice cream is being carefully calculated by how many calories in each spoonful divided by the amount of miles jogged this morning, perhaps it's time for an intervention.
You are in a meeting for work, fingers constantly tapping the table while your face is dripping with sweat. But this is not because you forgot to fill out your TPS reports. Your condition is the result of not being able to conduct your morning run because you accidentally slept in. Hopefully your boss doesn't notice.
Re-examining your wardrobe
This is your third weekend of shopping in a row, except none of these trips have resulted in a new dress or an expensive suit. Instead, your possession of compression shorts, headbands and tank-tops has increased by nearly 300 percent.
You are feeling a tad fatigued
You have canceled dinner reservations at your favorite seafood restaurant, turned down free tickets to the opera and chose not to spend the weekend at your father-in-law's beach house in Connecticut. Why? Daily marathon training has completely eliminated your social life. Remember that taking a break sometimes is just as important as reaching the finish line.
Knowing the neighbors too well
If you are finding yourself becoming aware of the fact that your nextdoor neighbor Carl only mows his lawn on Tuesday mornings, Cindy down the street never bothers to pick up after her cocker spaniel or that Chris likes to put up his Christmas lights in late October, perhaps your neighborhood jog is happening a tad too often.
Frequent beard compliments
If running has become such a huge priority to your mornings that simple hygienic actions have taken the back burner, you might need to step off the treadmill and look into the mirror. Remember, beards are always better on island castaways and guitarists in cheap sunglasses, not on young professionals such as yourself.
Your dog hates you
This could either happen because you take your dog with you every time you decide to run several miles, or you don't take your dog with you every time you decide to run several miles. It really depends on whether your pet shares your enthusiasm for exercise.
Awkward water cooler conversations
You are running so much that you have absolutely no idea who won the football game, which movie won best picture or which celebrity checked back into rehab. As a result, no one wants to talk to you at the office, and your colleagues have stopped inviting you to Friday happy hour. Enlighten yourself and catch up on your pop culture.
Your spouse is suspicious
Your poor significant other is spending another morning reaching across the bed and waking up to an empty indent of where the person they love once used to keep them company. Your spouse might start to suspect something if your excuses for your constant absences are, "I went out for a jog." Rekindle that fire and at least invite them along for the run.
Maintaining balance grows more important as we age, and if you notice yourself a bit wobbly now, it may be time to start strengthening your core. Your midsection plays an important role in staying on your feet, whether during athletics or when you're bringing in groceries. In addition to working out your abdominal muscles, you'll want to make sure that your major joints – the hips and knees, mainly – are steady and stable as well. A joint supplement can help to ensure that these parts of your body are ready for a challenge.
When it comes to the core, many people will turn to yoga or Pilates to gently strengthen their muscles. However, signing up for a class and sticking to a schedule can be tricky when you're busy. Instead, you can try out some of these balancing exercises at home on your own:
To start things out, try practicing simple weight shifts. These are as easy as standing with your feet hip-width apart, having your weight evenly distributed between both legs. From here, shift your weight to one side, as you lift the other foot off of the ground. Hold this position for 30 seconds, or as long as you can hold good form. Then you should return to the starting position and practice the exercise on the other side. Overtime, you'll notice improvements to your balance, as you are able to complete more repetitions while maintaining perfect form.
Now, to focus more on your core, try completing a set of toe raises. To do so, you'll want to be barefoot. Standing behind a chair, lightly place your fingertips on the back of it. Keep your shoulders back, with your abdomen pulled in. Now, lift your heels off of the ground slowly, redistributing your body weight to the balls of your feet. Pause for a moment before returning to the starting position. You should be able to do this eight to 15 times. Completing this exercise requires your core to keep the body stable, and you will also find that it strengthens the calves.
Seniors who are looking to improve their balance can do so with the heel-to-toe walk. With your arms extended out to either side, take a step forward by placing the heel of your left foot directly in front of the toe of your right foot. When doing so, the heel and toe should be touching or almost touching. While performing this walk, you should keep your head straight and your eyes focused on something located directly in front of you. Continue walking heel to toe for 20 steps.
For something a bit more challenging, the liftoff helps to strengthen the abs in addition to the back, shoulders, hamstrings and butt. This is another great option for strengthening the core, which will ultimately improve your balance. To start, stand with your feet together and arms at your sides. Bring your back parallel to the ground by hinging forward at the hips – you'll need to extend your arms down to help maintain your balance. Now, lift one leg from the ground and raise it out behind you. While doing so, bring your arms directly out from your sides. This puts all of your weight on one leg and you will need the muscles in your core to prevent you from falling. Keeping that hinged position, lower your leg and arm back to the starting position, and switch to your other leg.
Depending on your age and fitness level, you may want to start with varying balancing exercises. As you increase strength to the core, you'll find that you are able to complete more difficult routines easily.
The sun is shining, the birds are chirping, and that can only mean that it's time to spring back into shape for the summer. You will never get that perfect beach body by sitting on the couch and watching television all day, so now is the time to get outdoors and look your seasonal best. Here are a few easy activities and exercises that are simple to do while also providing the best results for a toned figure.
There is nothing like waking up a little early in the morning to get on the bike and cruise through the backroads to catch a sunrise. Cycling is amazing for your body in a number of ways. Because riding a bike is a non-impact exercise, you are taking a lot of pressure off of your bones and joints that you wouldn't do with running, all while receiving essentially the same workout. And it's also great for gradual weight loss as well. According to Harvard University, just a 30 minute bike ride can cut more than 300 calories from your body, so you can wear off the aftermath of a hearty morning breakfast.
If you live near a large body of water, spending a couple hours every week canoeing can provide your body with a number of wide variety of health benefits. Thoroughly pushing and pulling a paddle back and forth through the water will drastically improve your upper body strength, and help sculpt those biceps and pecs. Just 30 minutes of canoeing can help you lose more than 200 calories, plus it is a great way to catch a sunset on the water!
Indoor rock climbing
While this isn't necessarily limited to the spring, indoor rock climbing is a fantastic way to boost not only your flexibility and strength, but it also provides your brain with a test of strategy. When you are hooked up and gripping your fingers on each stone, you are actively engaging your cardiovascular system, increasing muscle strength and eliminating more than 300 calories from your body, all in just a 30-minute workout. Indoor rock climbing is also one of the few exercises that actually challenges your motivation and desire to get to the top, so your pride and reputation are on the line for this activity as well!
Weekly sessions of kickboxing will be sure to put a little spring in your step for the summer! Kickboxing is a complete workout package, especially for those trying to trim a few pounds. An hour of participating in kickboxing or other versions of martial arts can help you burn anywhere between 750 to 900 calories, especially if you include agility exercises like jump rope, which are common warm up activities for martial arts. Not only is it a heavy workout, but kickboxing is a self defense skill you can keep with you for life!
Tossing around the Frisbee with friends is less of an exercise and more of an active form of leisure, but following the rules of ultimate Frisbee will not only increase the excitement, but up the ante in exercise as well. Ultimate Frisbee is played out in similar fashion to football, where teams throw the spinning device to each other in hopes of moving down the field and crossing the goal line for a touchdown. A full-on game of ultimate Frisbee can make you burn upward of 13 calories in a minute, which means playing a 90 minute game with your friends can help you lose more than 1,000 calories! Ultimate Frisbee the is the ultimate combination of exercise and socializing.
Stress not only comes in many forms, but also affects us in a variety of ways. Whether it is deadlines from work forcing us to skip lunch or pulling an all-nighter trying to finish a college paper, pressure never seems to take a break.
While those examples are the more general consequences of stress, one of the lesser discussed symptoms of stress is an unhealthy immune system. This can not only result in feeling under the weather, but can turn you into a coughing and sneezing fest on top of an already intense boardroom meeting. Keeping your immune system happy is essential to controlling stress levels, so here is an overview of how stress affects the immune system, plus some tips to combat against feeling both sick and anxious:
When posed with a situation that inflicts stress, our bodies go through what is commonly referred to as the "fight or flight" response. Adrenaline kicks through the body and activates a stress hormone called corticosteroids that can reduce the immune system's ability to effectively fight off unwanted bacteria and antigens. Stress doesn't simply go away easily. A strenuous event such as a car accident or mounting pressure from a boss tends to stick within our minds, leading us to constantly think about it, which in turn produces more and more corticosteroids.
Every time you conjure up more feelings of stress, your immune system is thrown through a limbo, leaving you susceptible to illness. Researchers from Ohio State University have also found that our moods are often influenced by our immune cells' reactions that occur when our brains signal stress. Using mice, the doctors found that repeated exposure to stress can produce the highest concentrations of immune cells traveling to the brain, which not only leaves the immune system more vulnerable to infection, but also force the cells to infiltrate areas of the brain linked to anxiety and fear, therefore inducing even more stress.
In another study conducted by researchers from Ohio State University, professors found that loneliness and isolation, in addition to chronic stress, can harm overall immune system health. After analyzing blood samples from people prone toward loneliness against those more socially active, the researchers discovered that the lonely test subjects had higher levels of inflammation-related proteins, which can regularly cause problems for immune systems.
Lisa Jaremka, a professor at Ohio State University and lead author of the study, said her team's research signals a clear connection between stress and poor immune health.
"It is clear from previous research that poor-quality relationships are linked to a number of health problems," Jaremka said in a statement. "The same processes involved in stress and reactivation of these viruses is probably also relevant to the loneliness findings. Loneliness has been thought of in many ways as a chronic stressor – a socially painful situation that can last for quite a long time."
Coping with stress
An important way to help ease the tension in your life and simultaneously boost your immune system is by learning how to recognize and handle stress factors. A few tips to help you alleviate stress include:
- Identify what is building pressure on your life.
- Understand what stressors you can and can't control.
- Eliminate unnecessary stress by avoiding people or environments that provoke tension.
- Express your feelings through writing or conversation with someone close instead of bottling your emotions.
- Focus on the positive and adjust your goals and standards accordingly.
- Find the time to do an activity you enjoy every day.
These are just a few ways to learn how to cope with stress. Being able to combine a number of these guidelines to your everyday life can put your mind at ease, but keep your immune system healthy.
If you are often finding yourself tossing and turning at night, you might not only be hurting your chances at a perky morning, but you could be damaging your immune system as well. Researchers from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health have analyzed how consistent sleep deprivation can negatively impact your immune system, leaving you more susceptible to illness.
The researchers took a group of healthy men and assigned them to 4 to 5 hours of sleep every night before having to fulfill a typical workday. They discovered that the men who had at least three hours less than the normal eight hours of sleep at night had weakened white blood cells as well as significant changes in gene levels – two sure signs of a frail immune system. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are an estimated 50 to 70 million American adults who have some variation of a sleeping disorder. If you are struggling with obtaining the recommended eight hours of sleep every night, here are a few tips to help you get the slumber you need to be active and productive throughout the entire day.
Establish a routine bedtime
Getting your body to adhere to a strict time schedule is essential for receiving a good night's rest. If you find yourself tuning out at 10 p.m. one night then staying up until 2 a.m. the next, your body's internal clock will be confused. Once you have established your preferred time to fall asleep, try to stick to that time even on the weekends, which is often when sleeping routines are thrown out of sync. The same can be said for waking up in the morning as well.
Know what you are putting into your body
Guess what? If you are smoking cigarettes, eating ice cream or drinking nightly cocktails before bedtime, the odds are your sleep will suffer from it. Stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine usually take hours to wear off, which will keep your brain wired and mind wandering while you are trying to get some shut-eye. Avoid these late-night temptations as much as possible.
Avoid lights at all cost
Many people resort to watching television, scanning computer screens or flipping through their electronic music players before falling asleep. All these lights right before rest can reduce your body's production of melatonin, the naturally produced hormone that helps you sleep efficiently and is regulated by light exposure. Try not to watch television or read from electronic devices before sleep to ensure proper melatonin regulation in your body.
Limit your naps
If you are someone who frequently needs a cat nap during the day to get by, you aren't doing your body any favors by catching up on lost sleep at night. Any naps that last for more than 30 minutes can affect your body's sleep cycle, and the best time for naps is during the early afternoon. Before napping, try to make sure your blinds or shades are closed so sunlight can not readjust your internal clock.
Get your stress out
The more your mind is at ease, the better your body will sleep. Simply making sure you are organized and know what you need to do for tomorrow is one of the more efficient methods of getting a healthier eight hours of sleep.
As if you needed another reason to work out during the day, routine physical activity is one of the best ways you will enjoy a deep and peaceful sleep at night. Don't exercise too closely to your bedtime though. Get a solid 30 minutes of a workout right around dinner time for the best sleeping results.