Since 1976, when the Okinawa Centenarian Study began peering into the lives of the longest-lived, their lives have become valuable guides, pointing researchers toward some surprising revelations. With roughly 50 centenarians per 100,000 (as much as five times more than in the United States), Okinawa has been the epicenter for research, along with the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (known for its 100-and older men), and Nova Scotia, where people have twice the chance of living to 100 as in nearby New England.
Just how do they dodge disease and mortality? Genes do play a role. The lucky one-fourth of us who possess a variant of the FOXO3A longevity gene are twice as likely to live to 100. But geriatrician Bradley Willcox, MD, who helped discover that gene in 2008 and co-directs the Okinawa Centenarian Study, stresses that genes aren’t the only factor. The other 75 percent of centenarians stay healthy through healthy lifestyle choices. These include calorie restriction and even more social interaction.
Daphne Miller, MD, an associate clinical professor in the department of family medicine at University of California San Francisco, traveled the globe—from Mexico to Iceland—to explore places where people experienced low rates of modern chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. She found that most have a diet rich in immune-boosting fermented foods (from Okinawan pickles to Icelandic yogurt), omega-3 fatty acids (from Nova Scotia fish to African nuts), and chemical-free, locally grown veggies and meat.
Along with diet, exercise, and avoiding tobacco, social connections are another important determinant of longevity, says Miller. One recent study from Rush University Medical Center studied 1,238 seniors over age 78 for five years and found that those with “high purpose in life” (a rich spiritual life, close family, meaningful hobbies, good friends) were half as likely to die during the follow-up period as those without.
“In Okinawa, they call it ikigai,” explains Willcox, noting that Okinawan elders are highly valued and sought after for advice. “It’s something to look forward to every day, something that gives life meaning.”
5 tips for Preventing Dementia
Contrary to the image conjured up by the word “centenarian” (an absent-minded elder suffering from the ravages of Alzheimer’s), research shows that as many as 25 percent of the 100-plus crowd show no sign of cognitive decline at all.
Furthermore, among those who do experience dementia, it didn’t surface until 92 or later. “Many believe the ageist myth that the older you get the sicker you get,” says New England Centenarian Study director Thomas Perls. “If this were true, it would follow that most if not all centenarians should have Alzheimer’s disease. Numerous studies disprove this assumption.” In fact, the same factors that prolong life can keep our minds sharp well into the golden years.[half] 1 Stay lean. One 40-year study of 1,152 twins found that those who were overweight in midlife were one and one-half times more likely to develop dementia by age 65.
2 Heart-healthy diet. One study from Columbia University found eating a diet rich in fish, veggies, whole grains, and good fats lowered the risk of cognitive impairment by 28 percent.
3 Move it. A daily one-mile walk reduces the likelihood of dementia by 50 percent, says George Washington University neurology professor Richard Restak, MD.[/half] [half_last]4 Try new activities. Researchers at the Mayo Clinic recently asked 1,300 people, ages 70 to 89, about their daily activities in middle age and in the previous year. Those that read books, played games, did crafts, and had a rich social life were 30–50 percent less likely to develop memory loss.
5 Be Social. A 2007 study of 823 people in the Chicago area found that “lonely” people (based on a survey given at intake) are more than twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s than people who aren’t lonely.[/half_last] [hr]
Strategy #1 – Trim calories
Among the many strategies for living longer and avoiding disease, calorie restriction has perhaps the strongest scientific backing: more than 1,000 animal and human studies conducted during the past 80 years. Research shows cellular benefits from calorie restriction start to kick in with just a 10 percent cut. The hypothesis is that as calories are reduced—repeatedly exposing cells to mild stress—the body experiences what scientists call a hormesis effect: a generally positive adaptive response.
“The body believes it has an inadequate amount of food so it goes into more of a survival mode, where it strengthens its defenses at a metabolic level,” says Lisa Walford, coauthor of The Longevity Diet (Da Capo 2010), and curriculum director for YogaWorks Teacher Training.
There’s no rigid eating plan for calorie restriction. Some people graze on small meals throughout the day; others, like Walford, prefer to stave off hunger by eating a protein packed meal in the middle of the day, for example, 2 ounces of baked tofu with steamed vegetables in tomato sauce. Over 12 years, she gradually cut her calorie intake by 20 percent; she’s quite thin but has a clean bill of health, including low cholesterol and normal blood pressure and glucose levels.
CR diets may cause side effects, including bone thinning and lower libido in 10 percent to 15 percent of people. Some people go too far and get too thin, Walford cautions, and may get heart palpitations. (CR also isn’t recommended for children, people with eating disorders, or pregnant women.)
To keep bones strong, eat calcium-rich foods like dark leafy greens; supplement with calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D; and do weight-bearing exercises such as walking and weight lifting, says Walford. She also recommends 15 minutes of meditation and 30 minutes of yoga daily. “Yoga makes me more sensitive to the effect that everything has on my health,” she says.
Strategy #2 – Fight Free Radicals
The oxygen you breathe helps tiny cell components, known as mitochondria, produce the energy that keeps the body alive. But this process also creates free radicals. Internal or environmental stress also can fuel excessive free radical production. Several animal studies have shown that white blood cells produce more free radicals when you’re psychologically stressed. When you breathe or eat toxins such as ozone or pesticide residues, your liver works to neutralize them—again, creating free radicals. And ironically, even some things that are good for you, such as aerobic exercise, increase free radicals.
To help neutralize rogue free radicals, eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and other antioxidant foods. Among the best are cloves, oregano, rosemary, and cinnamon; acaí and cocoa; raspberries, blueberries, and cranberries; pecans, walnuts, and hazelnuts; artichokes; kidney and black beans; and raisins. Antioxidant supplements can help fill gaps.
To minimize toxin exposure, choose organic produce and chemical-free cleaning products when possible, and don’t use ozone-generating air purifiers, which can cause respiratory tract irritations.
As tempting as it may seem, don’t use exercise’s bad oxidative rap as an excuse not to work out. You can counterbalance aerobic exercise’s free radical effect by cranking up your antioxidant intake before or after workouts, Meletis says. And new research shows that weight training twice a week for an hour actually rejuvenates muscle mitochondria in men and women age 65 and older. “Over the course of time, your body becomes better at dealing with the oxidative stress, which means once you start working out, keep it going, because your body is literally becoming a better exerciser even at the mitochondrial level,” he explains.[box]THE PROBLEM WITH FREE RADICALS
Free radicals aren’t all bad—they fight infection and activate enzymes—but when they’re not busy with those jobs, they can go rogue, attacking and damaging cells throughout the body. This contributes to common aging indicators like poor eyesight and sagging skin, as well as diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s, and cancer.[/box]
Strategy #3 – Tame inflammation
It’s easy to tell when your skin is inflamed: It turns red. “But we don’t really have good measures of inflammation at the cellular level,” says Jonny Bowden, PhD, CNS, author of The Most Effective Ways to Live Longer (Fair Winds, 2010). “That’s a critical problem because inflammation is associated with every degenerative disease we know.”
Like free radicals, inflammation can be a good thing in small doses. Step on a nail and you want white blood cells and the body’s inflammatory chemicals to rush in. But these injury-fighting compounds also go into 911 mode in response to gradual cell damage by free radicals. The result of this damage, says Bowden, is chronic inflammation: in essence, inflammation that doesn’t know when to stop.
“Chronic inflammation is part of diseases as diverse as cancer, congestive heart failure, and digestive problems,” he says.
If you’re overweight, or have diabetes or dementia, “you definitely have chronic inflammation,” Bowden says. For everyone else, the best way to measure inflammation is to do a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) test. Studies show that CRP, which the liver produces as an immune response, can increase by 100 percent or more in response to inflammatory conditions. “The test isn’t perfect because it doesn’t tell you where the inflammation is in your body, but it’s the best we have,” Bowden says. Most doctors like to see a CRP score of 1 or less, he adds.
Balancing your ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids also helps. Bowden recommends eating two servings of fish a week, taking 1,000 mg daily of fish oil with EPA and DHA, and choosing olive oil or flaxseed oil over refined oils such as canola, corn, or generic “vegetable” oils. In addition, he says, “sugar turbocharges your inflammation-production pathways,” as do fried foods. Simmer or use a slow cooker rather than frying or grilling foods at high temperatures, which creates proinflammatory advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can damage nerve and brain cells as well as DNA.
[box]ANTI INFLAMATORY FOODS
To fight inflammation, Bowden recommends eating foods rich in phytonutrients, such as flavonoids, and other natural anti-inflammatory agents, including onions, leeks, garlic, leafy greens, tomatoes, bell peppers, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, beans, green tea, red wine, flaxseeds, and chocolate. The herbs parsley, rosemary, thyme, oregano, mint, tarragon, and dill are anti-inflammatory, as are the spices ginger, turmeric, and cinnamon.[/box] [hr]
Are you getting enough quality sleep?
One of the biggest contributors to early aging is poor-quality sleep, according to Andrea Purcell, ND, Portal to Healing Naturopathic Clinic, Costa Mesa, CA.
“Many people go to bed with lights on or surrounded by ambient light, which can interfere with sleep schedules and quality.”
Stress prematurely compromises hormone production and, over time, your cells aren’t able to repair themselves. We age because stress and lifestyle factors such as improper sleep and hygiene cause hormone depletion. But by triggering the release of growth hormones, sleep helps rebuild healthy cells and decreases the aging process.
Fight it: Sleeping at the right times helps our bodies repair the damage done during the day. And you don’t need to get a full 10 hours; you just need to maximize your hormonal release by sleeping at the right time. Your brain releases the hormone melatonin in response to darkness, usually between 9 p.m. and 11 p.m. This triggers the release of a hormone called prolactin between 11 p.m. and 1 a.m.; which activates the human growth hormone (HGH) throughout the night and helps repair and replenish the body.
Too much fat and salt?
If you eat a high-fat diet and too many high-sodium processed foods, you are more likely to experience accelerated and worsened cardiovascular aging, according to Douglas Seals, PhD, professor at University of Colorado at Boulder. Such dietary habits can also lead to weight gain, especially in the abdominal area. As you age, you typically gain body fat—it’s where that weight accumulates that determines if it will affect your heart and cardiovascular system. Fat accumulated around the abdomen is a different kind of fat that secretes molecules that are harmful to your heart.
Fight it: Eat various fresh green vegetables for their antioxidants, which can help protect your brain and heart from free radicals and the development of oxidative stress. Do aerobic exercise at least three to four days a week and eat a healthy diet low in fat and sodium and high in fresh, nutrient-rich foods.
What about alcohol?
As you age, your body doesn’t process alcohol as efficiently as it does when you are younger, according to Avid Oslin, MD, associate professor at University of Pennsylvania. Alcohol consumption leads to a pattern of impaired executive functioning and impaired memory and interacts with many medications, particularly in older adults. For some medications, alcohol will change how much of the medication is needed to control the underlying condition, such as insulin regulation, which can result in an increase in side effects from the medication. For other medications, alcohol can interfere with how the medication works and thus make the medication less effective (for example, antibiotics and antidepressants).
Fight it: Stick to moderate alcohol intake only; no more than one drink per night and try to make it red wine, which contains antioxidants. Remember: a 70-year-old who consumes the same amount of alcohol as a 40-year-old will have a higher blood alcohol level and will show more impairment. Also, your brain doesn’t tolerate as much alcohol as you age. Thus moderation is always the key.
You know that feeling. You just had a very large, very filling dinner and you feel you couldn't possibly eat one more bite of anything. But slowly, you get the feeling that something's missing – something sweet. Even though you're stuffed, you practically need a piece of chocolate, or – even better – a slice of chocolate cake. This happens to many people, perhaps even most. But why? Here's some information on post-dinner sugar cravings and how you can beat them:
Why do I crave sweets?
We want sweet treats after meals for several biological, psychological and lifestyle-related reasons.
- Low serotonin levels cause us to want to eat sugar. Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that elevates mood. Sugar can help the body absorb tryptophan, which helps produce serotonin. If you're feeling down, eating something sweet can boost your mood.
- Eating an unbalanced diet high in carbohydrates will cause your blood sugar levels to rise and then drop suddenly after dinner. Our bodies want this "high" again, so we look to sugar. We also experience low blood sugar when we're tired, which causes us to need more carbs for a pick-me-up.
- If your diet is low in fat, you could put too much strain on the body and cause insulin resistance, during which sugars are not being carried effectively throughout the body. This stress on our bodies leads to a need for sugar.
Even if you eat a healthy, balanced diet and have normal serotonin levels, you might still be feeling that you "need" sweets after dinner due to psychological conditioning: Dessert was always what rounded out and finished a meal, so you feel like something is missing if you don't have it.
Why should I avoid them?
Like you've heard hundreds of times, you really should do your best to eat sugar in moderation. The more sugar someone eats, the more their body becomes used to it and wants it – this sugar craving is a vicious cycle. Here are some foods with "hidden" sugars to watch out for:
- Protein bars
- Coffee drinks
- Teriyaki sauce
- Salad dressing
- Flavored waters
How can I resist?
There are many ways to resist sugar cravings and potentially avoid them altogether! Here are some tips:
- Eat a balanced diet – don't overload on carbs, but make sure to eat plenty of complex carbs that help us to stay full between meals.
- Get enough sleep each night because being tired makes us crave the quick – but not nutritious – pick-me-up that sugar provides.
- Check labels! You never know where sugar is hiding these days. It's even in foods we perceive to be savory and health foods.
- If you just can't resist, try a tactic like brushing your teeth immediately after dinner so you won't be tempted to eat sugar.
- Or, even better, substitute chocolate cake and candy for fresh fruit like berries that also pack an antioxidant punch.
- Take a walk after dinner. Exercise can boost serotonin levels too, making it less likely that you'll need to have sugar!
A new report titled “Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial” published in The FASEB Journal, found that increased protein protects against muscles during diet and weight loss. Doubling the recommended daily allowance of protein intake could help to protect against muscle loss during dieting and exercise related weight loss, say researchers.
Study abstract: The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg−1 d−1 for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9–10) and ED (d 30–31). Volunteers lost (P<0.05) 3.2 ± 0.2 kg body weight during ED regardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (P<0.05) and the loss of fat mass was higher (P<0.05) in those receiving 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA compared to RDA. The anabolic muscle response to a protein-rich meal during ED was not different (P>0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, P<0.05). To assess muscle protein metabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.—Pasiakos, S. M., Cao, J. J., Margolis, L. M., Sauter, E. R., Whigham, L. D., McClung, J. P., Rood, J. C., Carbone, J. W., Combs, G. F., Jr., Young, A. J. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.
Stretching feels good when you have tight muscles because it increases blood flow, but it's also important for flexibility, range of motion and reduced risk of a muscle strain.
When should you stretch?
Starting when we joined our first soccer team at the age of six, most of us have been told to stretch before exercising, whether that be jogging, sprinting, playing basketball or dancing. But the research on static stretching before exercise is mixed on whether it is beneficial, detrimental or has no effect on one's athletic performance. The vague conclusion is that stretches held for 30 seconds or less are fine for anyone to do before exercising, and the only people who definitely must stretch are those that will be holding a position for long periods of time in order to avoid pulling a muscle, such as gymnasts, hockey goalies and dancers.
But, you can stretch at any time, since its main purpose is to improve your flexibility and range of motion to do movements you couldn't perform otherwise. For example, if you feel stiff when you bend down to tie your shoelaces, you might want to stretch your legs every morning to get rid of this stiffness that makes shoe-tying uncomfortable.
Stretch every morning or night as part of your daily routine. Stretching after a workout is also good because your muscles are warmed up and this will have a greater effect on your flexibility.
How to stretch?
You can find several easy stretches online. You probably have a nice repertoire from your team-sport playing days, but online videos are abundant that show you how to do stretches to target particularly tight muscles.
Hold each stretch for about 30 seconds, and do up to four repetitions. Hold your position steadily – don't bounce, which can cause small tears and leave scar tissue, making your muscles even more tight! To avoid bouncing, stretch only to the point of tension and hold it there – don't let yourself feel pain. A good stretching routine will probably last between 15 and 20 minutes.
When can you stop stretching?
Make stretching a daily habit to improve your flexibility. As time goes on, you can spend fewer minutes stretching because you'll start to see the flexibility and range of motion results you want. Stopping altogether could make your muscles tight again, and stretching is good for the body, so keep it up every day if you can!
If you’re on a diet or at least conscious about what you’re eating, dining out can be a Catch-22. On one hand, not having to cook and eating delicious food prepared especially for you is downright awesome. On the other hand, you don’t always know what you’re eating, even when you think you do, and there’s no way to count calories, fat and other nutritional value if you didn’t prepare the food yourself. But dining out, whether it’s for a friend’s birthday, a date or just because you’re tired of cooking, is way too fun to avoid completely. Here are some tips about which foods you shouldn’t eat when dining out, and why:
Don’t eat these foods
Iceberg lettuce – Ordering a wedge salad made with iceberg lettuce is a bad idea on several levels. For one, iceberg lettuce is very inexpensive, so your meal is marked up nearly 20 times. Also, it has little nutritional value – it’s made of 98 percent water – and, in fact, could harbor bacteria in the cracks and corners of the wedge.
Bread baskets – These are usually filled with bread made from bleached flour, which isn’t very healthy. Also, the breads might be reused at some restaurants.
Bar snacks – Just don’t eat these. They’re free and tasty, but think of how many unwashed hands may have been in them!
Tepid water – Unless the water served to you is ice cold, ask for a new glass. Warm water is ripe for bacteria.
Buffets – Buffets cause you to over eat! Also, they aren’t always very sanitary. There’s no telling who just sneezed on that chicken breast you put on your plate.
Overly sauced items – Sauces are usually filled with sodium and fat, and they often are used to hide sub-par ingredients or those that are a bit old, such as low-quality, fatty meats.
Seafood at a non-seafood restaurant – You’ll get the freshest fish, clams and shrimp at places that specialize in seafood because they place more frequent orders than do non-seafood restaurants. Additionally, they’re less likely to have frozen seafood.
Bone-in meats – These are often difficult to cook because they don’t sit flat in the pan. Pork chops and chicken are the most worrisome foods if they aren’t cooked thoroughly.
Anything with these words: deep-fried, pan-fried, sautéed, battered, crispy, breaded, au gratin, béarnaise, hollandaise, Alfredo, creamy and cheesy. Items with these designations are often full of fat. Instead, opt for items that are broiled, steamed, poached, roasted, baked, grilled or blackened.
Golfing is a great social sport to do with friends, family and colleagues. The sport is relaxing for a lot of people because of the concentration and focus needed to play. And now, the best – and perhaps most underrated – season for golf is upon us! Say goodbye to waking up at unbearably early hours to get a tee time before it's sticky hot outside. Aside from being generally fun, playing golf has many health benefits as well. Though it's not a high-energy sport and no one typically thinks of golf as requiring abundant endurance or strength, research has shown that the physical activity required is associated with a decreased risk of injury and even less risk of death in middle-age adults.
According to a small-scale study by Finnish researchers, which was published in The American Journal of Medicine in August 2000, mostly sedentary middle-aged men who golfed had lower cholesterol and less risk of injury than mostly sedentary men who did not golf. In another study by Swedish researchers at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, which was published in the June 2009 edition of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, they analyzed data from more than 300,000 male and female golfers in Sweden. The researchers found that, compared to standard mortality rates, those who golfed had a 40 percent reduction in risk of death, which means their life expectancy was about 5 years longer than the average in Sweden. So golf definitely has some important health benefits.
If you're ready to hit the links this autumn, here are the top five courses for basking in resplendent fall foliage:
- Boyne Highlands Resort, Harbor Springs, Mich.
- Stowe Mountain Golf Club, Stowe, Vt.
- Lake of Isles, North Stonington, Conn.
- Blackwolf Run, Kohler, Wis.
- Sunday River Golf Club, Newry, Maine
If you've got a major sweet tooth, keeping candy bars, cake, cookies and ice cream out of your diet can be extra difficult. While everything in moderation is key, simply replacing some of your favorite sweets with a food that's a bit more healthy for you can make all the difference. So, instead of enjoying an after-dinner milkshake this Friday night, why not treat yourself to a Naturade Pea Protein shake?
What's Good Inside
The main ingredient in Naturade Pea Protein is – you guessed it – peas! The protein is made from yellow peas, more commonly known as split peas. Even if you've never been a fan of split pea soup, it's likely that you'll love this protein shake mix. Flavored with all-natural vanilla, this drink is as tasty as you'd expect to find a vanilla shake at a local soda fountain. In addition to its sweet, all-natural taste, Pea Protein is also chock-full of essential amino acids – those amino acids that our bodies don't naturally produce, and must be part of our diet.
What's Left Out
Sometimes, what's left out of the ingredients is just as important as what is included in them. Naturade's Pea Protein contains no aspartame. Often sold under the names NutraSweet or Equal, aspartame is an artificial sweetener that is 200 times more sweet than natural sugar. However, several studies have linked the substance to several diseases, including cancer, diabetes and even birth defects.
If you're lactose intolerant or allergic to gluten or soy, you're also in luck with these shakes – this protein mix is completely void of soy, dairy and gluten, and is free of cholesterol, so feel free to drink up! It's considered hypoallergenic – and honestly, how many foods can claim that?
Here are a few other things that you won't find in Pea Protein:
• No animal products. Pea Protein is completely plant-based, so whether you're vegan, vegetarian, or just like to limit your meat intake, this drink will help boost your daily protein.
• No GMOs. Although the word is still out as to whether GMOs are safe for human consumption, Naturade has made its own verdict and uses only non-GMO peas in its recipe.
• No colors or preservatives. The rich taste of Pea Protein is completely natural, right down to its color.
We often picture professional athletes as muscular and meat-eating. For many people, it's often impossible to imagine a vegan athlete – how can someone who avoids all animal proteins and products be able to perform at the rigorous levels required of a professional athlete in any field? However, there are many high-profile vegan and vegetarian – past and present – that are gaining more recognition and proving that physical ability doesn't hinge on animal protein intake. One way to get ample protein and nutrients as a vegan is to frequently enjoy VeganSmart All-In-One Nutritional Shake from Naturade. Here are some vegan athletes who have made veganism work for them:
This NFL running back announced he was going vegan in July 2012. Foster, who plays for the Houston Texans, eased himself into a vegan diet, working with a doctor to figure out which foods and products worked best for him. After announcing his newfound veganism on Twitter, Foster received a lot of criticism from fans and the media, and he replied via the social network:
"People feel so strong about meat and milk. I wish they felt this strong about peace."
Though Foster recently has said he still occasionally eats meat even while sticking to a mostly plant-based diet, he also expressed his choice of veganism as an act of independence and critical thinking, advising others to always ask questions:
"Don't take anything at face value. Find your own path and come to your own conclusions," Foster said in an interview.
This world-famous Olympic Runner attributes his 1991 World Championship performance – where he reclaimed the world record for the 100-meter sprint – to his vegan diet. Lewis has won 10 Olympic medals, nine of which were gold, as well as 10 world championships, between 1979 and 1996. He became a vegan in 1990 at the age of 30 and has never looked back. Lewis is an advocate not only for the health benefits of veganism but also the environmental and ethical importance, which he wrote about in an introduction to "Very Vegetarian" by Jannequin Bennett:
"Keep in mind that eating vegan does require a commitment to being good to your body and to acting responsibly toward the world around you," he wrote. "Most of us are not aware of how much damage we do to our bodies and to our world by the way we eat. Your body is your temple. If you nourish it properly, it will be good to you and you will increase its longevity."
This world-class cyclist and marathon runner has been a vegan since the age of 6, and a vegetarian since she was 4. Oakes was a champion cyclist, competing in the 1992 Olympics, before turning her sights to marathons. When she's training for a marathon, she runs between 90 and 100 miles daily. Still, she's able to compete with and actually beat the best athletes, even going on to win a North Pole marathon where temperatures were an icy -18 degrees Fahrenheit much of the time.
Oakes' vegetarianism is motivated by her love of and respect for animals, and she now operates an animal sanctuary. Oakes has never doubted her choice to be vegan, as an athlete and outside of races:
"Obviously, the health benefits of being vegan are written in stone but I honestly believe the most benefit to me being vegan is that I do not carry the burden of guilt that I would have to endure knowing that I abused others for my own 'benefit,'" she told Viva La Vegan! in a May 2012 article.