Studies & References
In the Pink Month or National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, the following is intended for breast cancer survivors.
A study published in Journal of American Medical Association suggests use of soy foods may help women diagnosed with breast cancer reduce risk of premature death and recurrence.
The study led by Shu X.O. and colleagues from Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center showed those who had highest intake of soy protein were 30 percent less likely to die or had recurrence of the disease during a 4-year follow-up.
Soy foods are high in isoflavones, phytoestrogens that have been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in previous studies, according to the background information in the study report.
The study was meant to examine the effect of soy protein intake on the health in women who have already been diagnosed with breast cancer.
For the study, the researchers enlisted 5,042 female breast cancer survivors in China ages 20 to 75 years who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. The participants were diagnosed with the disease between March 2002 and April 2006 and followed up through June 2009.
During the 3.9-year follow-up, of 5,033 women who underwent surgery, 444 women died and 534 suffered recurrence or breast cancer related deaths.
The researchers found those who had highest intake of soy protein were 29 percent less likely to die and 32 percent less likely to have recurrence of breast cancer compared to those who had lowest intake.
The mortality rate among women having the highest intake of soy protein was 7.4 percent compared to 10.3 percent for those who had lowest intake.
The recurrence rate among those who ate highest amounts of soy foods was 8 percent compared to 11.2 percent among those who had the lowest intake.
The researchers concluded “Among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence.”
More reports on diet and breast cancer will be released in the pink month.
Everyone has heard talk about GMOs recently. These genetically modified organisms have been all over the news, blogs and various social networking sites for awhile. Some people are concerned about them while others are not. If you don't know what the discussion is all about, here's some info to get you tuned in to the conversation:
What are GMOs?
Despite the semi-frightening name, genetically modified organisms are not extra-terrestrial blobs that are ready to take over the world. GMOs in fact are plants or animals whose genes have been modified in a lab by scientists using bacteria or viruses to make them more resistant to pesticides or crop blights or to produce their own insecticides.
What are they in?
According to a study by the Center for Food Safety, GMOs are in 60 to 70 percent of the products on our supermarket shelves. The most common genetically modified crops are soybeans (at least 85 percent of soybean crops in the U.S.), corn, oils for consumption and animal feed. As corn products, soy and various oils make up a large part of processed foods and the majority of farmed animals likely eat GMO feed, some people are very concerned about the amount of GMOs consumed in the U.S. There are various movements to limit GMO production and to label foods containing GMOs, though little research can be done on GMOs because most of the seeds are patented.
Many people say that GMOs cause various health problems in humans. More research needs to be done on their impact on the human body, but GMOs – 80 percent of which are meant to be pesticide-resistant – are likely bad for the environment because they encourage liberal use of pesticides, which have been shown to wreak havoc on the environment, animals and human bodies.
However, not everyone is against GMOs. Genetically engineering crops to resist common diseases or drought can help feed hungry people. Additionally, if the technology is used for good, it can improve the diets of impoverished people around the world, as is the case with the development of golden rice, which includes beta carotene, a very important nutrient for health.
A new report titled “Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial” published in The FASEB Journal, found that increased protein protects against muscles during diet and weight loss. Doubling the recommended daily allowance of protein intake could help to protect against muscle loss during dieting and exercise related weight loss, say researchers.
Study abstract: The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg−1 d−1 for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9–10) and ED (d 30–31). Volunteers lost (P<0.05) 3.2 ± 0.2 kg body weight during ED regardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (P<0.05) and the loss of fat mass was higher (P<0.05) in those receiving 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA compared to RDA. The anabolic muscle response to a protein-rich meal during ED was not different (P>0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, P<0.05). To assess muscle protein metabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.—Pasiakos, S. M., Cao, J. J., Margolis, L. M., Sauter, E. R., Whigham, L. D., McClung, J. P., Rood, J. C., Carbone, J. W., Combs, G. F., Jr., Young, A. J. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.
The randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study tested sexual function, performance, and libido levels in 60 healthy men aged between 21 and 50 years over a 6 week period. The results showed Testofen, one of the key ingredients in Vitali-T-Aid, produced a significant positive change in all parameters of libido. These results were recently published in Phytotherapy Research, a monthly international journal for medicinal plant research (2011; DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3360).
Vitali-T-Aid component Testofen, a standardized Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of male libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels. Researchers Elizabeth Steels and Amanda Rao from Applied Science and Nutrition Pty Ltd and Luis Vitetta from The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, recruited 60 healthy males aged between 25 and 52, without erectile dysfunction (ED) and randomized them to an oral dose (two tablets per day) of either 600 mg/d Testofen or a placebo for six weeks. The primary outcome measure was the DIS-SR (male) self-administered QOL total score and the four domain scores. The secondary outcome was specific quality of life parameters. The same 600mg dosage equals the amount of Testofen in one serving of Vitali-T-Aid. Each daily dose of Vitali-T-Aid also contains a proprietary Male Enhancement Blend of L-Arginine and beneficial herbs, such as Saw Palmetto, Astragalus, Tribulus and Asian Ginseng, to help support enhanced male health and well-being.
One of the key ingredients in Vitali-T-Aid demonstrated an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in sexual arousal and orgasm. Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being, but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range.
Vitali-T-Aid, a new supplement from Naturade, naturally increases free testosterone levels. In clinical studies on the key studied ingredient, Testofen, free testosterone levels in test subjects were shown to increase by over 98% along with exercise. Testofen acts like testosterone by binding to the testosterone receptor sites and creating testosterone-like activity in the body, thereby supporting healthy free testosterone levels. Studies show that Vitali-T-Aid by Naturade is a natural solution for increasing free testosterone levels and promoting healthy libido, immune function and muscle mass. Vitali-T-Aid natural testosterone booster can be purchased on http://www.vitalitaid.com.
Scientists investigating natural ways to enhance athletic performance have found that bovine colostrum can massively reduce gut permeability – otherwise known as ‘leaky gut syndrome.’ Their findings, published in the March issue of the American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, could have positive implications not just for athletes but also for sufferers of heatstroke.
A research group led by Ray Playford, Professor of Medicine at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry looked at athletes who were asked to run for 20 minutes at 80 per cent of their aerobic maximum. At the end of the exercise, changes in the subjects gut leakiness were measured using urine sample – also determined were changes in the athletes’ core temperature. Under standard conditions, gut leakiness had increased by 250 per cent and temperature had risen by 2 degrees. However, when the group were given a drink of dairy colostrum for two weeks before the trial, the rise in gut leakiness was reduced by about 80 per cent, despite the same effort and temperature rise.
Gut disorders induced by exercise are common in runners – the body’s response to increased permeability is to clear the gut contents, giving rise to symptoms such as diarrhoea to avoid toxins from gut organisms entering the bloodstream, as these lead to heatstroke which can result in damage to the internal organs.
Professor Playford’s research identified changes in gut barrier function in laboratory studies: gut cells were cultured at normal 37 degrees body heat and at 39 degrees to replicate the temperature after exercise. The death rate of gut cells was much increased at the higher temperature yet when colostrum was added to the culture medium the rise in cell death rate was reduced by two thirds.
Professor Ray Playford said: “Athletes’ performance can be seriously diminished due to gut symptoms during heavy exercise. We have been looking at natural approaches to reduce this problem as the range of products that athletes can legitimately take is very limited. Our findings suggest colostrum may have real value in helping our athletes perform. This is a research area we are especially interested in given our proximity to the 2012 Olympic site. In addition, extremes of temperature and exercise are often suffered by armed forces in desert war scenarios and can result in heat stroke which is life threatening. Based on our results to date, our research group is also exploring products that may be useful for protecting soldiers in life threatening situations such as these.”
More information: on the benefits of bovine colostrum and how it assists athletes is published in the March issue of American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (http://ajpgi.physiology.org/)
Ultra T Gold™ by Ageless Foundation Laboratories has been formulated based on extensive scientific research and clinical studies. One of the primary ingredients, Testofen®, is an all natural ingredient that has been the subject of two separate, double-blind, placebo controlled studies showing how it increases free testosterone (with exercise) and boosts libido. Ultra T Gold™ also contains a proprietary Male Wellness blend of L-Arginine and beneficial herbs such as Saw Palmetto, Astralagus, Tribulus and Asian Ginseng which support male health and overall well-being.* Below are some of the actual studies behind the ingredients in Ultra T Gold™.
Testofen™ – Fenugreek Extract Standardised for 50% Fenuside
Fenugreek is a well-known herb, containing a variety of compounds as active ingredients. It is an extremely versatile herb with multiple applications. This amazing herb is said to contain more than a 100 phytochemical constituents. Amongst them are a lot of Furostanol Saponins and Steroidal Saponins.
Testofen™ helps promote healthy Testosterone levels. In addition, it seems to act like Testosterone to promote libido. The following are clinical studies done on Testofen™:
1.- Human Clinical Study for Free Testosterone and Muscle Mass Boosting:
This study was conducted in 2008 on 60 healthy men and was placebo-controlled and double-blind. Half of the group took 600mg of Testofen per day and the other half took 600mg of a placebo. Both groups also participated in resistance training exercises throughout the eight week study. The primary findings were as follows:
- Testofen group experienced a significant increase in Free Testosterone (p<0.05) compared to the Placebo group.
- Testofen group TESTOFEN® group demonstrated significant anabolic activity as evidenced by BUN reduction (p<0.05) compared to the Placebo group.
- Testofen group has not only compensated the loss of Immunity typically associated with exercise compared to Placebo (p<0.003) and also increased immunity.
- Testofen group showed significant reduction in Serum Creatinine levels (p<0.02) compared to Placebo group signifying Creatine uptake and recycle in muscle cells.
- Testofen group showed a significant increase in Prolactin compared to Placebo (p<0.04). However this increase is within Physiological limits for men.
- Testofen group showed a significant decrease in body fat compared to baseline.
- Testofen group maintained Muscle size despite maintaining weight and reducing fat.
Read the study:
2.- Clinical Study for Improvement of Male Sexual Function:
This study was conducted in 2009 on 60 health adult men and was placebo-controlled and double-blind. Half of the group took 600mg of Testofen per day along with some other basic minerals including Magnesium, Zinc and Vitamin B6 and the other took placebo. This study involved no exercise regimen. The primary findings were as follows:
- Testofen has an overall positive effect on sexual function, performance, and satisfaction (libido) in healthy adult males.
- Testofen has a positive effect, on sexual cognition, sexual arousal increases sexual activity and satisfaction with orgasm in healthy adult males.
- Testofen has a positive effect on frequency of sexual activity.
- Testofen has a positive effect on muscle, strength, energy and wellbeing in healthy adult males.
- Testofen does not have an effect on mood and sleep in healthy adult males.
- Prolactin levels and Testosterone levels remained within healthy reference range after 6 weeks of treatment demonstrating that Testofen is safe to use in healthy men to support libido function.
- Testofen may help to maintain healthy testosterone levels.
- Testofen was well tolerated and has no adverse effects when taken as directed over 6 weeks.
The results of this study were also published in a peer-reviewed journal, Phytotherapy Research in 2010.
- Urmila Aswar et.atl, Effect of Furostanol Glycosides from Trigonella foenum –graecum on the reproductive system of Male Albino Rats. Phytother. Res. 24: 1482–1488 (2010)
- Effect of TESTOFEN on safety, anabolic activity and factors affecting Exercise Physiology. Wankhede et. al. To be published.
Research on the effectiveness of some of the main nutrients in Ultra T Gold™:
- L-arginine is converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to open wider for improved blood flow. L-arginine also stimulates the release of growth hormone, insulin, and other substances in the body. Read more>
- Saw palmetto is best known for its use in decreasing symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy, BPH). According to many research studies, it is effective for this use. Read more>
- Tribulus is a plant that produces fruit covered with spines and is connected with many male health issues. Read more>
- Asian Ginseng is used for improving thinking, concentration, memory and work efficiency, physical stamina, and athletic endurance. Read more>
- Astralagus Root is known to assist blood circulation and increase energy in the body. Read more>
- Phytosterol (40% Beta Sitosterol) supports prostate health and supports cardiovascular health. Read more>
Testofen® and fenusides are a registered trademark of Gencor Nutrients.
PUNE, India—Furostanol glycosides isolated from fenugreek (as Testofen®, form Gencor ) increased muscle mass in castrated rats without affecting testosterone levels, in a recent study published is Phytotherapy Research ( 24: 1482–1488 (2010). DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3129 ). This anabolic activity has the potential to aid men as they enter so-called male menopause.
Andropause is an old-age disease associated with the loss of libido, loss of muscle mass and associated with decreased testosterone production. As the male body ages, gonadal function slowly declines with a resulting drop in serum testosterone, which can lead to multiple clinical manifestations such as a decrease in bone mass, learning factions, erectile functions, muscle mass and strength. On the other hand, fat mass increases.
Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum ) has long been used in the traditional Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, including sexual health. Western medicine often looks to testosterone replacement to treat erectile dysfunction, which has been shown to compromise the overall quality of life, and increase depression, anxiety and loss of self-esteem. Erectile dysfunction may also signal underlying disease including diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A potential risk of testosterone replacement therapy is an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer.
In the present investigation, Testofen at dose of 35 mg/kg/d significantly increased the weight of the levator ani muscle without increasing the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) similar to exogenous testosterone (10 mg/kg) treatment, indicating anabolic activity. Anabolic agents induce positive nitrogen balance in living organisms. Another bioassay for anabolic activity involves measurement of the increase in weight of the levator ani muscle. This measure correlates well with the nitrogen retention bioassay and the two are usually performed for the determination of anabolic activity.
This current study used Testofen, a furostanol glycoside fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum , in immature castrated male Wistar rats to investigate anabolic and androgenic activity. The Indian researchers also investigate the effect of Testofen on testicular histology in non-castrated immature rats. Both the castrated and intact rats were divided into the following groups: (I) Control (distilled water), (II) Testofen at 10 mg/kg/d, (III) Testofen at 35 mg/kg/d, (IV) and testosterone (10 mg/kg bi-weekly) for four weeks. At the end of the study, blood was withdrawn, serum testosterone and BUN were measured. Animals were killed and reproductive organs were excised and weighed.
Testosterone increased the body weight of rats significantly (P<0.001) from 151.6 to 254.2 g (68.94 percent increase), whereas the weight of 35-mg/kg-Testofen-treated rats was increased from 151.6 to 193.8 g (28 percent increase). The increase in body weight of 10-mg/kg-Testofen-treated rats was not significant compared with the control group.
Testosterone significantly increased the seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and levator ani weight, but not the penis weight. Testofen at 35 mg/kg, on the other hand, significantly (P<0.001) increased the weights of the levator ani muscle, but failed to increase other organ weights. At the lower dose of 10 mg/kg, Testofen did not increase organ weights.
Testofen at both doses did not change the testosterone level in either the castrated or intact rats, whereas testosterone treatment caused significant (P<0.001) increases in serum testosterone level.
The BUN in castrated rats was 33.44 mg/dL in the control group. The BUN was found to be 18.8 mg/dL in both the higher dose of Testofen and testosterone treatment groups. However, the lower dose of Testofen did not cause a significant change in BUN compared with the control group.
It is postulated that testosterone that is converted peripherally to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5-alpha reductase is responsible for the prostate risk associated with testosterone therapy. DHT has a role in the growth of prostatic tissue and therefore can influence lower urinary tract symptoms. Endogenous testosterone in the circulation can be free (unbound), weakly bound to albumin, or tightly bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The free and albumin-bound testosterone is available for use by the body. The largest percentage, however, is bound to SHBG and is unavailable for use in the body.
The results obtained in the present study showed that fenugreek furostanol glycoside possessed anabolic activity (increased muscle mass) without affecting total serum testosterone levels in castrated rats. The probable mechanism for this action may be due to increased availability of testosterone by dissociating it from the stored form, i.e., SHBG.
New studies indicate that breast cancer survival rate may be increased with moderate soy consumption
Eating soy boosts breast cancer survival
Soy consumption for cancer patients has been the subject of some controversy. A new study has shown that breast cancer survivors who consume soy foods reap important health benefits and found that eating soy can increase the rate of survival for breast cancer patients.
According to a recent report published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), women diagnosed with breast cancer and who consumed soy foods, such as tofu, soy milk, or edamame reduced their risk of recurrence by 32 percent. 1
Previous research refuted
Previous research had produced contradictory results with some studies suggesting that soy foods reduce the risk of breast cancer and others that compounds unique to soy may help breast cancer cells to grow. Now, previous theories been refuted with this new study demonstrating that soy does not increase the growth of breast cancer cells and has been proven to increase survival rates.
Higher soy intake – lower mortality
Researchers also found that breast cancer patients who consumed soy had a 29 percent decreased risk of death, compared to women who consumed little or no soy. Xiao Ou Shu, MD, PhD, lead researcher and professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, said, “Women who had a higher soy intake had a lower mortality and lower risk of relapse [than women with a low soy intake].”
Dr. Shu and her fellow researchers analyzed data from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, the largest population-based study of breast cancer survival to date. The study included 5,042 women from 20 to 75 years of age and followed them for a period of four years.
Soy compounds reduce estrogen in the body
Soybeans are rich in phytoestrogens, also known as isoflavones. Although these substances are one thousand times less potent than human estrogen, there has been some concern that isoflavones may have an estrogen-like effect and may increase cancer risk.
However, many experts believe that because isoflavones fool the body into accepting the very weak compound, phytoestrogen actually competes with the human estrogen, thus reducing the overall level of estrogen in the body.
Soy is safe and potentially beneficial
An editorial accompanying this new study suggests some probable inconsistencies in prior research. The editorial attributed those inconsistencies to the fact that soy consumption in the U.S. is a good deal lower, which made the beneficial effects of consuming soy foods difficult to identify. In China, soy intake is higher and diets tend to include the intake of more traditional soy from food sources, rather than from soy supplements.
The researchers report, “The inverse association was evident among women with either estrogen receptor-positive or receptor-negative breast cancer and was present in both users and nonusers of tamoxifen.”
“In summary, in this population-based prospective study, we found that soy food intake is safe and was associated with lower mortality and recurrence among breast cancer patients.” These scientists concluded that, among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence. Dr Shu and her colleagues stated, “This study suggests that moderate soy food intake is safe and potentially beneficial for women with breast cancer.”
1. Shu XO, Zheng Y, Cai H, et al. Soy food intake and breast cancer survival. JAMA. 2009;302:2437-2443. Ballard-Barbash R, Neuhouser ML. Challenges in design and interpretation of observational research on health behaviors and cancer survival. JAMA. 2009;302:2483-2484.
Young adults in the early stages of developing high blood pressure (hypertension) experienced significant decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures following six weeks of drinking a whey-rich beverage every day, according to findings published in the International Dairy Journal.
Effects were observed whether the subjects consumed hydrolyzed or non-hydrolyzed whey beverages, leading the researchers to propose that the benefits were due to a factor other than the presence of anti hypertensive peptides was produced during hydrolysis.
“The majority of the subjects enjoyed the taste and convenience of the functional whey protein beverages. Taste and convenience are both important to ensure compliance during a dietary intervention,” wrote researchers from Washington State University.
“Whey protein beverages may be a valuable dietary intervention in the treatment of hypertension,” they added.
High blood pressure (hypertension),defined as having a systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) greater than 140 and 90 mmHg, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) – a disease that causes almost 50 per cent of deaths in Europe, and reported to cost the EU economy an estimated €169bn ($202bn) per year.
Led by Susan Fluegel, the WSU researchers recruited 71 young men and women with an average age of 20 and an average BMI of 24.6 kg/m2 and randomly assigned them to receive either a beverage containing 28 grams of whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC80 TemPro, Leprino Foods) or a beverage containing 28 grams of hydrolyzed WPC80. After six weeks of intervention, the researchers noted no overall differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), or mean arterial pressure (MAP) between the groups. However, when Fluegel and her co-workers looked at sub-groups, they noted significant decreases of 8.0, 8.6, and 6.4 mm Hg for SBP, DBP, and MAP, respectively, in young adults with elevated DBP and SBP. The apparent benefits were observed following ingestion of either beverage. On the other hand, people with normal blood pressure levels at the start of the study had no changes in their BP measurements, they added.
“We found that whey protein beverages lowered BP only in individuals with previously high BP, but not in those with normal blood pressure,” wrote the researchers. “These findings suggest that whey protein beverages had a normalizing effect on elevated BP and did not cause hypo tension. This is important since hypo tension can be a health concern in certain population groups, such as young women and the elderly.”
Commenting on the potential mechanism, the WSU researchers noted that the effects may be related to whey’s influence on nitric oxide production – a chemical species with a known role in blood pressure regulation. Indeed, a randomized, double-blind study showed that Glanbia Nutritionals’ proprietary peptide NOP-47 improved blood vessel function in healthy individuals, with the effects occurring via nitric oxide dependent and independent mechanisms.
Source: International Dairy Journal
Volume 20, Pages 753-760, doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2010.06.005
“Whey beverages decrease blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive young men and women”
Authors: S.M. Fluegel, T.D. Shultz, J.R. Powers, et al.
Body weight is one of the most basic issues of human life. Self-esteem, acceptance among peers– and perhaps lifelong success or failure—are, unfortunately, all tied to our physical appearance. Medically speaking, not all overweight people are obese. Obesity is defined as weight that exceeds 15 percent of normal weight for height and body type. “Morbid” obesity exceeds 20 percent of optimum weight. An obese or overweight person is at high risk for a number of serious health problems, including heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, varicose veins, dementia, psychological stress, depression, osteoarthritis, high cholesterol, and diabetes. The detrimental health effects of obesity are more than just a matter of weighing too much. Body composition–the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean muscle–is also important. Body mass index (BMI) is associated with overall mortality.
Soy Isoflavones are a dietary supplement derived from soybeans containing phytoestrogens. These weak estrogens are chemically similar in structure to naturally produced estrogen hormones. Isoflavones are found in soy foods both with and without a sugar molecule attached. The two primary isoflavones in soybeans are daidzein and genistein and their respective glucosides, genistein and daidzein. Soy foods typically contain more genistein than daidzein, although this ratio varies among the different soy products. In cultures where soy products are consumed in abundance, women’s health problems, certain cancers, and cardiovascular disease are reported to be less prevalent.
A double-blinded controlled trial was performed to determine the effect of soy supplementation on abdominal fat, glucose metabolism and circulating inflammatory markers. Researchers recruited 39 obese postmenopausal women to take a soy supplement which contained 20 grams of soy protein and 160 milligrams of soy isoflavones or a casein placebo without isoflavones. Thirty-three women completed the study and were analyzed at baseline and at 3 months. The results were women given soy supplementation experienced a 7.5 percent reduction in abdominal fat, compared to 9 percent more abdominal fat in the placebo group. No differences were observed between the two groups for glucose metabolism, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin or adiponectin. The authors of this study also reported that Caucasians primarily lost visceral fat (fat surrounding the organs in the abdominal cavity) while African Americans primarily lost total body fat. In conclusion, soy supplementation was found to reduce abdominal fat in obese postmenopausal women.1
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology
1 Christie DR, Grant J, Darnell BE, et al. Metabolic effects of soy supplementation in postmenopausal Caucasian and African American women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010.