Studies & References
Body weight is one of the most basic issues of human life. Self-esteem, acceptance among peers– and perhaps lifelong success or failure—are, unfortunately, all tied to our physical appearance. Medically speaking, not all overweight people are obese. Obesity is defined as weight that exceeds 15 percent of normal weight for height and body type. “Morbid” obesity exceeds 20 percent of optimum weight. An obese or overweight person is at high risk for a number of serious health problems, including heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, varicose veins, dementia, psychological stress, depression, osteoarthritis, high cholesterol, and diabetes. The detrimental health effects of obesity are more than just a matter of weighing too much. Body composition–the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean muscle–is also important. Body mass index (BMI) is associated with overall mortality.
Soy Isoflavones are a dietary supplement derived from soybeans containing phytoestrogens. These weak estrogens are chemically similar in structure to naturally produced estrogen hormones. Isoflavones are found in soy foods both with and without a sugar molecule attached. The two primary isoflavones in soybeans are daidzein and genistein and their respective glucosides, genistein and daidzein. Soy foods typically contain more genistein than daidzein, although this ratio varies among the different soy products. In cultures where soy products are consumed in abundance, women’s health problems, certain cancers, and cardiovascular disease are reported to be less prevalent.
A double-blinded controlled trial was performed to determine the effect of soy supplementation on abdominal fat, glucose metabolism and circulating inflammatory markers. Researchers recruited 39 obese postmenopausal women to take a soy supplement which contained 20 grams of soy protein and 160 milligrams of soy isoflavones or a casein placebo without isoflavones. Thirty-three women completed the study and were analyzed at baseline and at 3 months. The results were women given soy supplementation experienced a 7.5 percent reduction in abdominal fat, compared to 9 percent more abdominal fat in the placebo group. No differences were observed between the two groups for glucose metabolism, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin or adiponectin. The authors of this study also reported that Caucasians primarily lost visceral fat (fat surrounding the organs in the abdominal cavity) while African Americans primarily lost total body fat. In conclusion, soy supplementation was found to reduce abdominal fat in obese postmenopausal women.1
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology
1 Christie DR, Grant J, Darnell BE, et al. Metabolic effects of soy supplementation in postmenopausal Caucasian and African American women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010.
A new study finds that the isoflavone in soybeans can prevent a second stroke in individuals suffering from cerebrovascular events. According to the study published in The European Heart Journal, isoflavone reverses endothelial dysfunction in stroke sufferers.
Similar to cholesterol-lowering drugs, the chemical, also known as a phytoestrogen due to its estrogen-like effects, can improve the arterial blood flow in patients with a positive stroke history. Previous studies had reported that soy-rich diets can lower blood cholesterol levels and help prevent breast and prostate cancers. Isoflavones are also effective in lowering the risk of arteriosclerosis and other cardiovascular events.
University of Hong Kong scientists concluded that taking isoflavone dietary supplements can help reduce the risk of future strokes or cardiovascular events in stroke patients.
A new study suggests that soy supplements can help postmenopausal women shed off pounds, in addition to various health benefits reported.
Previous studies had reported that the high estrogen content in soy-rich products can help women during and after menopause in various aspects ranging from treating hot flashes to reducing heart attack risk factors like high cholesterol.
According to the study published in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, women following a diet rich in soy supplements have less abdominal fat in more precise computerized tomography (CT) scans. The efficacy of the diet, however, varies in different races. While adopting such a diet helps white women lose more visceral and abdominal fat, the use of soy supplements is associated with considerable reductions in the overall body fat in black women. Compared to white women, black women are also reported to lose more weight during the same time, the study found. Scientists, however, stressed that postmenopausal women should not start taking soy supplements just for the sake of controlling body composition or body weight.
Source: Press TV
(Via: Natural News) Dr. Daniel G. Clark, author of Colostrum, Life’s First Food states: ” … bovine colostrum rebuilds the immune system, destroys viruses, bacteria, and fungi, accelerates healing of all body tissue, helps lose weight, burn fat, increase bone and lean muscle mass and slows down and even reverses aging.” Colostrum is in the milk that any mammal produces just before giving birth. It becomes part of the mother’s first food for the newborn to provide defenses against pathogens and to stimulate growth. After a short time, this wondrous substance that supports rapid growth and disease prevention is no longer in the milk.
Bovine colostrum is gathered from cows’ whole raw milk, usually within eight hours of a calf’s birth – and not just from any cows. Factory dairies are not appropriate as colostrum supplement sources. It’s important to exclude rBGH and antibiotics. Only cows without added hormones and antibiotics that graze on grass or non-GMO alfalfa in open pastures should be used for colostrum supplements.
Glutathione Is Provided by Colostrum
Glutathione, or GSH, is considered the ultimate antioxidant. But it cannot be supplemented orally because it gets disassembled in the gut before it can get into cells where it belongs. It has to be manufactured internally, mostly by the liver. People with serious debilitating diseases, including cancer and AIDS, usually have low glutathione levels.
GSH regulates other antioxidants and triggers the immune system response with lymphocytes, or T and B white blood cells to counterattack pathogenic invaders in our bodies. Glutathione is composed from three amino acid precursors – glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine. Cysteine is the missing link rarely found in our food.
Cysteine can be toxic in the gut, but cystine, which is two bound cysteine molecules, is abundantly present in colostrum, and it passes through the digestive system for the cells to break it down into two cysteine molecules. Yes, colostrum has these three amino acids raring to produce GSH for you!
It appears there are information feuds festering a bit between colostrum providers and whey based GSH precursor providers, each claiming their product outperforms the other. But research has shown no significant difference between properly processed colostrum and whey for glutathione production.
Colostrum outperforms whey in other areas to offer a complete package. Anti-aging depends more on certain hormones that diminish as we grow older. Enter the coveted growth hormones and growth factor isolates. A small amount of Growth Hormone (GH) is available. Since it’s very potent, a small amount is good enough to have an impact.
In addition, there are five Growth Factors (GFs) attached: Platelet derived GF, insulin-like GF, transforming GF, epithelial GF, and fibroblast GF. Maintaining an adequate supply of Growth Hormone and associated factors promotes cellular growth and minimizes cellular destruction. Thus healing is promoted more quickly. Anti-aging factors beyond glutathione are very high in colostrum.
Immune System Enhancement
With colostrum you get glutathione plus other immunity factors. Remember, this is first food for just born mammals. They need all the immunity they can get.
Immunoglobulins found in colostrum destroy bacteria and neutralize microbes and toxins in the lymph and circulatory system. Lactoferrin, a protein in colostrum, is antiviral, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory.
Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) in colostrum is a hormone essential to the thymus gland, which regulates the immune system up or down as needed.
Make sure the colostrum is complete with fats, and is taken from properly raised cows shortly after giving birth. In addition to matching whey’s ability for providing glutathione production, colostrum offers even more anti-aging potential and rebuilds your immune system.
A new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that consumption of soy, fruits, and vegetables helps reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Postmenopausal women who consumed plenty of soy, fruits, and vegetables had a 30 percent lower risk of developing breast cancer, compared with those who consumed relatively little of these foods. The research was based on 34,028 women in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. The longer the women had consumed these healthful foods, the less chance they had of developing breast cancer.
Butler LM, Wu AH, Wang R, Koh WP, Yuan JM, Yu MC. A vegetable-fruit-soy dietary pattern protects against breast cancer among postmenopausal Singapore Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr. Published ahead of print February 24, 2010. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28572.
Bovine colostrum supplemented orally is known to support healthy human immunity. Healthy men cycled for 2 hours after receiving a daily colostrum for 4 weeks (in comparison to a control group) as done in a new study. There were no deficits in the front line immunity of those taking the colostrum, in contrast to those experienced by the group not taking colostrum.
Aerobic exercise may be good for overall health but it can weaken the immune system
Obtaining a decent response to aerobic exercise is vital for longevity and health. However, one problem is that exercise can diminish the front line of your immune system. This will be certainly relevant to those actively exercising during the winter bug season. This study reveals that daily ingesting colostrum can prevent a lowering of your immune system function.
Although this study was performed on healthy men, its value could be particularly important to individuals struggling with exercise, like those with fibromyalgia. In this scenario, exercise is crucial for improvement but performing exercise can be a problem and create a whole set of problems. It is probable that colostrum, which is a far-reaching powerhouse metabolically, would appear to be useful to aid in the response to exercise in such individuals.
Colostrum is formulated to support the requirements of the high growth phase in infants, a nutrient suited ideally for enhanced recovery and regeneration that goes with the process of fast growth. It appears that it fits in well as a support nutrient for rehabilitation from excess demands linked with physical performance. In this case it is proven in healthy men, but theoretically also aiding those who fight to get a good response to exercise (which is consonant with observations of the nutrient in clinical practice.)
Increased intakes of soy protein may reduce cholesterol levels in people with type-2 diabetes, says a new study that expands on the heart healthy potential of soy.
Consumption of 40 grams of soy protein isolate (SPI) per day for 57 days resulted in significant reductions in both LDL cholesterol and the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol, compared to consumption of the same dose of milk protein, according to results published in the Journal of Nutrition.
“This study provides evidence for soy as a dietary preventive strategy for adults with type-2 diabetes to reduce their cardiovascular disease risk and, in so doing, improve their quality, and possibly length, of life,” wrote the researchers, led by Alison Duncan from the University of Guelph.
The association between soy protein and blood lipid levels, led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve a cardiovascular disease (CVD) reduction claim for soybean protein in 1999.
Hypercholesterolaemia has a long association with many diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), the cause of almost 50 per cent of deaths in Europe, and reported to cost the EU economy an estimated €169bn ($202bn) per year.
“This study therefore adds to the literature through its particular emphasis on prevention by studying adults with type-2 diabetes who are free of diabetic complications and not taking glycemic or lipid-lowering mediations,” wrote Duncan and her co-workers.
Dr Duncan and her co-workers recruited 29 type-2 diabetics for their double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study. The participants were assigned to consume a daily dose of soy protein isolate, which also contained 80 mg of aglycone isoflavones, or milk protein isolate for 57 days. At the end of the intervention they underwent a 28 day washout period prior to being crossed over to the other intervention.
The soy (Supra Soy) and milk products used were provided by Solae.
According to their findings, the soy protein intervention was associated with a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol levels of 0.17 mmol/l, a reduction in the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol of 0.03 points, and drops in the ratio of apolipoprotein B:apolipoprotein A-I, compared to the milk protein intervention.
Apolipoprotein B is the main apolipoprotein of LDL cholesterol and is responsible for the transport of cholesterol to tissues. In high concentrations it has been linked to plaque formation in the blood vessels, although the mechanism behind this is not clear.
“The inclusion of apolipoproteins in future soy intervention studies is highly warranted; their relevance to CVD risk is well established and there is a particular emphasis on the apolipoprotein B:apolipoprotein A-I ratio as highly predictive in the evaluation of cardiac risk,” wrote the researchers.
The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, reported to be the most specific lipid risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), was not affected by the intervention, they added.
No changes in HDL cholesterol were noted by the researchers.
“These data demonstrate that consumption of soy protein can modulate some serum lipids in a direction beneficial for CVD risk in adults with type 2 diabetes,” wrote the researchers.
Source : Journal of Nutrition
September 2009, Volume 139, Pages 1700-1706, doi:10.3945/jn.109.109595
“Soy Protein Reduces Serum LDL Cholesterol and the LDL Cholesterol:HDL Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B:Apolipoprotein A-I Ratios in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes”
Authors: E.A. Pipe, C.P. Gobert, S.E. Capes, G.A. Darlington, J.W. Lampe, A.M. Duncan
Literature Review Finds No Indication that Soy Decreases Testosterone Levels
ST LOUIS, July 20 /PRNewswire/ — A new study published by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine finds that soyfoods and soy isoflavone supplements have no significant effect on male reproductive hormone levels in men. The literature review indicates that soy does not decrease testosterone levels.
Led by Jill M. Hamilton-Reeves, PhD, RD, of St. Catherine’s University, St. Paul, Minnesota, researchers assessed the effects of soy protein and soy isoflavones on measurements of male reproductive hormones. Findings, just published online in Fertility and Sterility, a publication of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, demonstrate no significant effect of soy protein or soy isoflavone intake on circulating levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin or free testosterone in men.
The comprehensive meta-analysis examined the existing scientific literature including all clinical studies examining soy’s effect on male reproductive hormones published before July 1, 2008. Fifteen placebo-controlled treatment groups with baseline and ending measures were analyzed. Thirty-two reports involving 36 treatment groups were also assessed in simpler statistical models. Studies published after July 1, 2008, which were not included in the meta-analysis, support the conclusions of the meta-analysis.
Reproductive endocrinologist William R. Phipps, MD, of the University of Rochester Medical Center, a co-author of the analysis stated, “As a high-quality source of protein that is relatively low in saturated fat, soy can be an important part of a heart-healthy diet and may contribute to a decreased risk of coronary heart disease.” He noted that some men have been reluctant to consume soyfoods due to concerns about estrogen-like effects of soy isoflavones, often referred to as phytoestrogens. But according to Phipps, “it is important for the public to understand that there is no clinical evidence to support these ideas. After conducting a comprehensive review of the existing literature, we found no indication that soy significantly alters male sex hormone levels.”
Men can benefit from soyfood consumption as a means to meet daily protein requirements and at the same time possibly also reducing their risk of heart disease.
Citing the research study, Lisa Kelly, MPH, RD, of the United Soybean Board, added,
“Soy is often praised for the positive role it can play in the diets of women. But, years of clinical research have shown that men stand to benefit from soy, too. I encourage men to incorporate soyfoods into a balanced and varied diet and talk to their healthcare provider about their own unique nutritional needs.”
SOURCE: United Soybean Board
New research determines that dietary supplements rich in isoflavones may improve the function of arteries in stroke patients
A dietary supplement rich in isoflavones may improve the function of arteries in stroke patients, according to new research from Hong Kong.
The study is said to be the first randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of isoflavone supplements on improving the blood flow in the arm’s main artery in cardiovascular disease patients.
A daily 80 mg dose of isoflavones was associated with a one per cent increase in flow-mediated dilation (FMD), the measure of a blood vessel’s healthy ability to relax, according to findings published today in the European Heart Journal.
“Although the absolute increase in brachial diameter – one per cent – is small, the relative increase actually amounted to about 50 per cent because the mean average FMD in these stroke patients was about two per cent,” explained lead researcher Professor Hung-Fat Tse.
“These findings may have important implications for the use of isoflavone for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease, on top of conventional treatments,” wrote the authors in their EHJ paper.
Isoflavones from soy have been shown to provide a number of health benefits, including the promotion of heart health and the maintenance of bone health in post-menopausal women.
They have also been studied for their role in cancer prevention and slowing down the ageing process in peri-menopausal women, and isoflavone-rich supplements have proved to be a popular alternative to HRT for those wishing to control menopause symptoms without resorting to drugs.
Professor Tse and his co-workers from the University of Hong Kong recruited 102 stroke patients and randomly assigned 50 to receive daily isoflavone supplements (), and 52 to receive placebo, for 12 weeks.
“The specific dosage of 80 mg/day was chosen because previous studies have shown that isoflavone at this dosage was well tolerated by both men and women without significant side effects,” explained the researchers.
Ultrasound techniques were used to measure FMD at the start and end of the study. At the start, 80 per cent of the patients had an impaired FMD, defined as relaxation of less than 3.7 per cent. At the end of the 12 weeks, however, the patients receiving the isoflavone supplements experienced an improvement of one per cent, compared with the controls.
Moreover, the prevalence of impaired FMD after 12 weeks was only 58 per cent in the isoflavone group, compared to 79 per cent in the placebo group.
“The patients who had a lower initial FMD were found, in general, to respond with a larger absolute increase in FMD after receiving 12 weeks of isoflavone intervention, compared to patients who had a better baseline FMD in the first place,” said Prof Tse.
“These findings suggest that isoflavone reverses endothelial dysfunction in this group of patients with cardiovascular disease. This has important clinical implications, as the benefit of the [intervention] is conferred to the group of patients with the highest risks for cardiovascular events, and this effect persists, even at this rather late stage of the cardiovascular continuum.”
Supplementation with isoflavones was also associated with decreases in the levels of a protein called high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). This protein is a marker of inflammation and is reported to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular-related events.
“These findings suggested that isoflavone[s] alleviated vascular inflammatory stress and was an important component that mediated the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in this group of patients,” wrote the authors.
The mechanism by which the soy compounds is not totally understood, said Professor Tse. However, the anti-inflammatory effects may be related to the weak oestrogenic effect of the isoflavones. The female hormone oestrogen is known to protect against heart disease, said the researchers.
Despite the promising results of this clinical trial, the researchers stressed that it was too early to make any recommendations in this area.
“At this juncture, regular isoflavone supplement might not be advocated since the benefits and side effects of long-term supplementation are still unknown,” said Professor Tse.
“A balanced diet is still the top priority in promoting health. Diets with higher soy content might be beneficial due to the isoflavone contents. These food products also, in general, have higher contents of polyunsaturated fats, fibre, vitamins and less saturated fat.”
Recent studies have found Colostrum to be three times more effective against flu than the flu vaccine. A trial was conducted comparing colostrum to flu vaccine. The paper titled “Prevention of Influenza Episodes With Colostrum Compared With Vaccination in Healthy and High-Risk Cardiovascular Subjects” evaluated the efficacy of a 2-month treatment with oral colostrum in the prevention of flu episodes compared with anti influenza vaccination. Groups included healthy subjects without prophylaxisand those receiving both vaccination and colostrum. After 3months of follow-up, the number of days with flu was 3 timeshigher in the non-colostrum subjects. The colostrum group had13 episodes versus 14 in the colostrum + vaccination group,41 in the group without prophylaxis, and 57 in nontreated subjects.Part 2 of the study had a similar protocol with 65 very high-riskcardiovascular subjects, all of whom had prophylaxis. The incidenceof complications and hospital admission was higher in the groupthat received only a vaccination compared with the colostrumgroups.
Colostrum, both in healthy subjects and high-risk cardiovascularpatients, is at least 3 times more effective than vaccinationto prevent flu and is very cost-effective.
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Study: San Valentino-Spoltore Vascular Screening Project, Department of Biomedical Sciences, G D’annunzio University, Chieti, Pescara, Italy
Authors: Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Di Renzo A, Dugall M, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Pellegrini L, Del Boccio G, Fano F, Ledda A, Bottari A, Ricci A, Stuard S, Vinciguerra G.